Sociale determinationsfaktorer



Videnskabsteori og determinationsteori

De 6 forskellige samfundsvidenskabelige teoriretningers opfattelser af social determination 

Den videnskabelige socialisme.

Determinationsteori og erhvervlivet

Does Technology Drive History?
Smith, Merritt Roe, and Leo Marx, eds. (1984). Does Technology Drive History? The Dilemma of Technological Determinism. Cambridge, MA; London: MIT Press. ...

Do machines make history? 
Heilbroner 1967: Do machines make history? ...

Science, Technology and the Military:
Volume 12/1 & Everett Mendelsohn, Merritt Roe Smith, P. Weingart  eds. Springer Netherlands, 1989. ... 1988. ... 

Systems theory

PEST modellen

Determinationsteori for virksomheder 

PEST modellen 
PEST analyse et teoretisk værktøj til analyse af en virksomheds omverden. En omverdensanalyse omfatter som udgangspunkt alle tænkelige faktorer, der har indflydelse på virksomhedens værdiskabelse.

PEST analysis
PEST (political, economic, social and technological) describes a framework of macro-environmental factors used in the environmental scanning component of strategic management.

PEST & PESTEL Analysis ...

PESTLE Analysis 
The term has been widely used and the earliest reference can date back to a book by Aguilar in 1967 who discussed ETPS (Economic, Technical, Political, and Social) in his book Scanning the Business Environment. ...  PESTLIED (includes Demographic and International factors), ...


The Spelit Power Matrix
The Spelit Power Matrix: Untangling The Organizational Environment With The Spelit Leadership Tool.
June Schmieder-Ramirez Ph.D (Author), Leo A. Mallette Ed.D (Contributor). 2007. ...

Oxford Learning Lab (2012).
PESTLE - Macro Environmental Analysis. ...
Se nu: ...
Opdateret på ...

Michael Porter
Porter's Generic Strategies 
A frameworks used to outline the three major strategic options open to organizations that wish to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage ...  cost leadership, differentiation and focus. ...


Positivistic theories

John Gerring 2005: Causation: A Unified Framework for the Social Sciences. 
Journal of Theoretical Politics 2005; 17; 163
... This paper offers four main arguments about the nature of causation in the social sciences ... ... ... pdf

Elster, Jon (1989) Nuts and Bolts for the Social Sciences. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 

Gardiner, Patrick (1952/1961) The Nature of Historical Explanation.
Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Geertz, Clifford (1973) The Interpretation of Cultures. New York: Basic Books

The top-down- and the bottom-up approach 
Glennan, Stuart S. (1992) ‘Mechanisms and the Nature of Causation’, Erkenntnis 44: 49–71.
Glennan, Stuart S. (2000) ‘Rethinking Mechanistic Explanation’, unpublished manuscript,
Department of Philosophy and Religious Studies, Butler University, 1–31 December.
... Stuart Glennan (2000: 1) explains, ‘The top-down approach explains an event by showing it
to be part of a larger nomological or explanatory pattern, while the bottom-up approach
explains an event by describing the network of causes that are efficacious in bringing that. event about, ...

Goldstone, Jack A. (1997) ‘Methodological Issues in Comparative Macrosociology’ , Comparative Social Research 16: 121-132 

Goodman, Nelson (1965) Fact, Fiction, Forecast, 2nd edn. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill

Griffin, Larry J. (1992) ‘Temporality, Events, and Explanation in Historical Sociology: An Introduction.’ Sociological Methods and Research 20(4): 403-427.

Hall, Peter A. (2003) ‘Aligning Ontology and Methodology in Comparative Politics’, in James Mahoney and Dietrich Rueschemeyer (eds) Comparative Historical Analysis in the Social Sciences. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 

Two Concepts of Causation
Hall, Ned (2004) ‘Two Concepts of Causation’, in John Collins , Ned Hall and L. A. Paul (eds) Causation and Counterfactuals, pp. 225-276. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press

Hedstrom, Peter and Richard Swedberg , eds (1998) Social Mechanisms: An Analytical Approach to Social Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 

Hempel, Carl G. (1991) ‘Empiricist Criteria of Cognitive Significance: Problems and Changes’, in Richard Boyd , Philip Gasper and J.D. Trout (eds) The Philosophy of Science. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press

Rueschemeyer, Dietrich and John D. Stephens (1997) ‘Comparing Historical Sequences - A Powerful Tool for Causal Analysis’ , Comparative Social Research 16: 55-72 

Salmon, Wesley C. (1984) Scientific Explanation and the Causal Structure of the World. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press

Salmon, Wesley C. (1989) ‘Four Decades of Scientific Explanation’, in Phillip Kitcher and Wesley Salmon (eds) Scientific Explanation: Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science, Vol. XIII. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press

Skocpol, Theda and Margaret Somers (1980) ‘The Uses of Comparative History in Macrosocial Inquiry’ , Comparative Studies in Society and History 22(2): 147-197

Somers, Margaret R. (1992) ‘Narrativity, Narrative Identity, and Social Action: Rethinking English Working-Class Formation’ , Social Science History 16: 591-630

Spohn, Wolfgang (1983) ‘Deterministic and Probabilistic Reasons and Causes’ , Erkenntnis 19: 371-396 

Von Wright , Georg Henrik (1971) Explanation and Understanding. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press

Waldner, David (2002) ‘Anti Anti-Determinism: Or What Happens When Schrodinger’s Cat and Lorenz’s Butterfly Meet Laplace’s Demon in the Study of Political and Economic Development’ , paper presented to the annual meetings of the American Political Science Association, Boston MA, August-September.

Watkins, J.W.N. (1994) ‘Historical Explanation in the Social Sciences’, in Michael Martin and Lee C. McIntyre (eds) Readings in the Philosophy of Social Science. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press 

Udledning af de essentielle faktorer der er bestemmende for samfundsudviklingen.

10-faktor model 
Strukturering i 10 essentielle sociale determinationsfaktorer 
Geografi, den ydre natur.
Miljø, formningen af den ydre natur.
Geopolitik. samspil mellem flere samfund.
Demografi, befolkningssammensætning.
Teknologi, produktionsredskaber.
Økonomi, arbejde og økonomisk værdi.
Politik, magtforhold og juridiske love.
Kultur, sociale vaner, viden og værdier.
Ideologi, viden, moral, formning af den indre natur
Psykologi, den indre natur.

Structural functionalism

Talcott Parsons 
Social action theory and structural functionalism.

Talcott Parsons: The Social System.

Talcott Parsons: Toward a General Theory of Action: Theoretical Foundations for the Social Sciences. 

Actor System Dynamics

Actor System Dynamics theory, ASD

Thomas Baumgartner

Philippe DeVille

Walter F. Buckley 
A non-functionalist theory of social stratification

Clifton D. Bryant, Dennis L. Peck 2007: 21st Century Sociology: A Reference Handbook, Bind 2 ...


Social construction of technology, SCOT
Technological constructivism

Bijker, Wiebe E., Thomas P. Hughes, and Trevor J. Pinch, eds. The Social Construction of Technological Systems: New Directions in the Sociology and History of Technology. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1987. ...
Pp. 1-50: ...pdf

Agency, Structure, and Change

Callinicos, Alex 2004: Making history: Agency, Structure, and Change in Social Theory. Brill. ...


The rise and fall of American growth 
Gordon, Robert J. 2016: The rise and fall of American growth: the U.S. standard of living since the Civil War. Princeton University Press ...

Robert Gordon argues that the new technologies in information and communications don't pack the same economic punch as the industrial revolution and the wide-spread availability of electricity and the internal combustion engine. ...

TED talk
Are we witnessing the end of growth? Economist Robert Gordon lays out 4 reasons US growth may be slowing, detailing factors like epidemic debt and growing inequality ... ..

Why has the media missed Trump's outrageous insult to American education when he said "students lack all knowledge"!? ... 


Social Change and History 
Nisbet, Robert A. (1969): Social Change and History: Aspects of the Western Theory of Development. New York: Oxford University Press.

Machine Dreams- Economics Becomes a Cyborg Science
Author: Philip Mirowski 2001.
... Philip Mirowshki shows how what is conventionally thought to be "history of technology" can be integrated with the history of economic ideas. ... 

The Patterns of History

The Patterns of History, and what They Reveal about the Future 
Why the West Rules - for Now: The Patterns of History, and what They Reveal about the Future
Ian Morris. McClelland & Stewart, 2010.
...  Ian Morris, boldly entering the turf of Jared Diamond and Niall Ferguson ...  to make sense of the past, present, and future ... ... 

Methods to calculate Eastern and Western social development scores 
The Measure of Civilisation: How Social Development Decides the Fate of Nations
Ian Morris. Profile Books,  2013.
...  Why the West Rules briefly describes the methods used to calculate Eastern and Western social development scores since the ice age; in The Measure of Civilisation, Morris expands upon these methods. ...

The role of conflict in civilisation 
War: What is it good for?: The role of conflict in civilisation, from primates to robots
Ian Morris. Profile Books, 2014. 
... Without war, we would never have built the huge nation-states which now keep us relatively safe from random acts of violence. ... ... 

Ian Matthew Morris (born 27 January 1960)
British archaeologist and historian

Siden er under konstruktion.

European Association for the Study of Science and Technology (EASST)

STS wiki
Science and Technology Studies (STS) examines the influence of society on science and technology, and the influence of science and technology on society.
STS references

Callinicos, Alex. 2004. Making History: Agency, Structure, and Change in Social Theory. (Leiden: Brill).


Den videnskabelige socialisme


Louis Althusser`s determinationsbegreb 
Ud fra en opfattelse af at Sovjetunionen og Kina var socialistiske omkring 1960, mener Althusser at Marx`s økonomiske determination kan opblødes til at økonomien kun er overdeterminerende, fordi den socialistiske ideologi i de to land var meddeterminerende.
Vurdering af  Althussers determinationsteori 
Marx`s definition af socialisme, som en styreform hvor arbejderne har magten bliver åbenbart ikke brugt.

Contradiction and overdetermination
Louis Althusser (1962) ...

Typology of technological determinism
Merritt Roe Smith,Leo Marx eds. Does Technology Drive History?: The Dilemma of Technological Determinism.
... typology of technological determinism ... p. 81. ...

Poznan School

Poznan School
Jerzy Kmita, Leszek Nowak and Jerzy Topolski. 

Methodology of history  
Topolski, Jerzy 1976: Methodology of history ...

Idealization/concretization model 
Nowak, Leszek 2010: The Structure of Idealization: Towards a Systematic Interpretation of the Marxian Idea of Science. Springer. ...

Determination of consciousnes  
Jerzy Kmita: Humanistic interpretation, functional-genetic determination of social consciousness ... ...

Poznan School 
Swiderski E.M. 1984: Humanistic Interpretation and Historical Materialism: The Methodology of the Poznan School. 
In: O’Rourke J.J., Blakeley T.J., Rapp F.J. (eds) Contemporary Marxism. Sovietica, vol 46. Springer, Dordrecht. ...

Why nations fail

Acemoglu, D. and Robinson, J. (2012). Why nations fail: the origins of power, prosperity, and poverty. Random House Digital, Inc.

Critical reviews 
Jeffrey Sachs: the major problem of Why Nations Fail is that it focuses too narrowly on domestic political institutions and ignores other factors, such as technological progress and geopolitics.

Technological Revolutions and Financial Capital: The Dynamics of Bubbles and Golden Ages 
Carlota Perez 2003. Edward Elgar Pub. ... 

... Carlota Perez shows us that historically technological revolutions arrive with remarkable regularity, and that economies react to them in predictable phases. 

Societal Evolution Framework  
Tribes, Institutions, Markets, Networks: A Framework About Societal Evolution
by David Ronfeldt 1996. ... pdf

Reconceptualizing Development in the Global Information Age
redigeret af Manuel Castells, Pekka Himanen ... 

Structure and agency

Power, Structure and Agency 
Derek Layder  1985 ... 

Power, agency and structure: An examination of Steven Lukes 
Margaret Groarke. Pages 31-46 | Published online: 13 Dec 2007 ... 

Steven Lukes 1974 and 2005: Power: A Radical View.
2005: Palgrave Macmillan, 2nd Edition.
...  "three faces of power," This theory claims that power is exercised in three ways: decision-making power, non-decision-making power, and ideological power.

Anthony Giddens  
... Four notable stages can be identified in his academic life. 
1: Outlining a new vision of what sociology is, 1971-1973.
2: Giddens developed the theory of structuration, 1976-1984.
3: Critique of postmodernity and discussions of a new "utopian-realist" third way.
4: The European Union in Turbulent and Mighty Continent: What Future for Europe? (2014)
... analysis of both structure and agents, without giving primacy to either.

How Society Shapes Technology / Robert Pool.  

The Silent Revolution
Changing Values and Political Styles Among Western Publics
Ronald Inglehart 1977 and 2015.
...  Ronald Inglehart focuses on two aspects of this revolution: a shift from an overwhelming emphasis on material values and physical security toward greater concern with the quality of life; and an increase in the political skills of Western publics that enables them to play a greater role in making important political decisions.

Long Waves

Causal Mechanisms of Long Waves 

Papenhausen Ch. 2008. Causal Mechanisms of Long Waves. Futures 40: 788–794.

Modelski G. 2001. What Causes K-waves? Technological Forecasting and Social Change 68: 75–80.

The sixth Kondratieff wave and the cybernetic revolution ... 

The Sixth Wave: How to Succeed in a Resource-limited World
James Bradfield Moody, Bianca Nogrady. Vintage 2010. ... 

The Cybernetic Revolution and the Forthcoming Epoch of Self-Regulating Systems
Grinin, Leonid, Grinin, Anton L. ... 

Global Trends - Office of the Director of National Intelligence
National Intelligence Council (NIC) undertakes a major assessment of the forces and choices shaping ... Global Trends and Key Implications Through 2035.
... Three Scenarios for the Distant Future: Islands, Orbits, Communities.
Islands investigates a restructuring of the global economy that leads to long periods of slow or no growth. 
Orbits explores a future of tensions created by competing major powers seeking their own spheres of influence. 
Communities shows how growing public expectations but diminishing capacity of national governments open space for local governments and private actors.

Béla H. Bánáthy

Béla H. Bánáthy (1919 - 2003)  

Faced with new realities, our systems have to transform — as the society has transformed. They have to learn to co-change (co-evolve) with their constantly changing environments. Thus, it is imperative that we understand what these transformations and new realities are. We have to grasp their implications for systems, and apply our understanding of these implications to the transformation of our systems. We need to learn how to recreate our systems, how to redesign them so that they will have a “goodness of fit” with the emerged new realities. No small task by any means!
Béla H. Bánáthy (1994) Creating our future in an age of transformation. p. 1; Cited in: Sherryl Stalinski (2005) A Systems View of Social Systems, Culture and Communities: The Legacy of Bela H. Banathy. Saybrook Graduate School. p. 11. ...

Bánáthy 1996, Designing Social Systems in a Changing World, Plenum, NY.
Bánáthy 2002, with Patrick M. Jenlink, "The Agora Project: the New Agoras of the Twenty-first Century," Systems Research and Behavioral Science ... 

Béla H. Bánáthy (1994) Creating our future in an age of transformation ... 

Bela H. Banathy 1996: Designing Social Systems in a Changing World
... Change dimensions ... ... 

Bela H. Banathy 2000: Guided Evolution of Society - A Systems View
... `the revolution of conscious evolution,' when it becomes our responsibility to enter into the evolutionary design space and guide the evolutionary journey of our species.
... esign of evolutionary guidance systems that our families, neighborhoods, communities, organizations, social and societal systems can use to design the future they aspire to attain. ... 

Ervin Laszlo, Founder of the General Evolutionary Research Group and author of "Whispering Pond, The Consciousness Revolution, and Macroshift".

The Consciousness Revolution: A Transatlantic Dialogue: Two Days with Stanislav Grof, Ervin Laszlo, and Peter Russell

Ervin Laszlo 2001: Macroshift: Navigating the Transformation to a Sustainable World. Berrett-Koehler publisher. ... 

Professor Gordon Rowland, Ithaca College, Author of "Tripartite Seed: The Future Creating Capacity of Designing, Learning, and Systems". 

William Fielding Ogburn

William Fielding Ogburn 
... He was also known for his idea of "culture lag" in society's adjustment to technological and other changes. This concept is mentioned in the book Future Shock, by Alvin Toffler.  
He played a pivotal role in producing the groundbreaking Recent Social Trends during his research directorship of President Herbert Hoover's Committee on Social Trends from 1930 to 1933. ... 
Recent social trends in the United States; 1933

Recent social trends in the United States; 1933

By W. F. Ogburn, University of Chicago 
... Scientific discoveries and inventions instigate changes first in the  economic organization and social habits which are most closely associated  with them. Thus factories and cities, corporations and labor organizations  have grown up in response to technological developments.  The next great set of changes occurs in organizations one step further  removed, namely in institutions such as the family, the government, the schools and the churches. Somewhat later, as a rule, come changes in social philosophies and codes of behavior, although at times these may 
precede the others.
... It is  difficult but vital to determine what type of relationship there shall be, 
for all types are by no means envisaged by the terms communism and capitalism.
The problems before the nation as they are affected by social  change fall into three great groups.
One group is the natural environment of earth and air, heat and cold, fauna and flora. This changes very slowly; it is man's physical heritage.
Another group is our biological inheritance those things which determine the color of our eyes, the width of our cheek bones, our racial characteristics apart from environmental influences. And this also changes slowly.
A third is the cultural environment called civilization, our social heritage, in which change is going forward rapidly. In this framework the problems  of change will be presented. 
Demography - population 
... development of a population policy ... 

Social Change, Culture and Nature
Ogburn, William Fielding (1922). Social Change with Respect to Culture and Original Nature. New York: B. W. Huebsch. Second printing 1923.
... Perhaps we should discuss plans of changing the economic order, such as are involved in such extensive programmes as socialism,... there Is evidence of a lack of harmonious adjustment between modern culture and human nature, as seen particularly in the extent of neuroses and functional psychoses ...
... The Biological Factor and the Cultural Factor in Social Change. ... txt

Cultural lag  
The term cultural lag refers to the notion that culture takes time to catch up with technological innovations, and that social problems and conflicts are caused by this lag.
Woodard, James W. "Critical Notes on the Culture Lag Concept." Social Forces 12.3 (Mar. 1934): 388-398. SocINDEX with Full Text. EBSCO. Langsdale Library, Baltimore, MD. 30 Sep. 2009.

Conceptualizing Technological Change: Theoretical and Empirical Explorations
Govindan Parayil. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers 1999. ... 


Ideology and Superstructure in Historical Materialism
Franz Jakubowski (1936) 
... About Karl Korch: ... In his two books Marxism and Philosophy and The Materialist Conception of History: A Debate with Karl Kautsky, Karl Korsch makes a detailed examination of how marxist theory has degenerated, especially in Kautsky and (with the second edition of Marxism and Philosophy) in "marxismleninism". ... pdf

Michael Löwy ... 

Tainter, Joseph 1988: The Collapse of Complex Societies 
Cambridge University Press.  
... Conflict theory vs  functionalist theories ... p. 34.

Economic determinism

Fra jæger-samler samfund til landbrugssamfund

The origins of agriculture 
Bar-Yosef, O. & Meadow, R. H.. 1995. The origins of agriculture in the Near East, in Price, T. D. & Gebauer, A. (ed.), Last hunters, first farmers: new perspectives on the prehistoric transition to agriculture. Santa Fe (NM): School of American Research

Climatic cycles and behavioural revolutions: the emergence of modern humans and the beginning of farming
Andrew Sherratt 1997. ...